By Linda Farrell
An almost universal habit that struggling readers exhibit is looking up from the page when reading. In my previous EdView360 post, I stressed the importance of teaching students to keep their eyes on the words when they read. I also noted that, when students stop looking up and start looking at the word in order to use decoding strategies, many show immediate improvement when reading.
A number of teachers responded to the blog. Many wrote that they had not noticed how often their students looked to them for approval or for help with reading. Several teachers asked what they could do to help their students change their habits so that they keep their eyes on the words when they read. This blog offers some suggestions.
Helping students change the “looking up” habit requires diligent attention and patience, patience, patience. It helps to understand the different reasons students look up so that we can respond in the most effective way.
Students look up from the page for three primary reasons:
1. Students look to the teacher for approval. These students look directly at the teacher and wait for the teacher to say “good job” or something similar.
2. Students look up to signal to the teacher that they don’t know the word or need help. These students also look directly at the teacher. In many classrooms, the teacher or another classmate tells the student the word.
3. Students look up to think about what the word might be. These students are trying to pull the word from memory and generally look into space, not directly at anyone.
1. Students Who Look Up for Approval
Looking up for approval is the easiest of the three behaviors to correct. Please don’t mistake “easiest of the three” to mean easy. As with any habit, this one can take time to change.
One respondent to the blog wrote about a technique we also use: “We emphasize maintaining focus on the word from beginning to end with a few simple techniques. For those students having diﬃculty breaking the habit, I’ve tried standing/sitting behind them while they read! Worked like a charm—it was very evident to the student how often they broke focus, how reliant they were on teacher approval and how self-sufficient they became so swiftly.”
Some students look up for approval just two or three words before they ﬁnish reading. Often, this causes them to misread one or more of the ﬁnal words. To change this habit, every time a student looks up before ﬁnishing reading, the teacher reminds the student he or she looked up, and then has the student reread. The teacher has the student reread whether all the words were read correctly or not. Doing this each time a student looks up will foster the habit of keeping eyes on the page at all times. We have found that if we have the student reread only when words are misread, the habit doesn’t change nearly as fast, if at all.
Some students have a diﬃcult time recognizing that they look up before ﬁnishing the sentence. In this case, the teacher can put a hand lightly on the student’s head and tell the student not to look up until the teacher takes the hand away. Another technique is to have the student say “period” when he or she comes to the end of the sentence, then tap a ﬁst on the desk before looking up. We have used both these techniques successfully with a number of students.
2. Students Who Look Up Because They Want the Teacher to Tell Them the Word
Students who look up because they want the teacher to tell them the word need to be reminded to keep their eyes on the word. The teacher can say, “Remember that you need to say ‘Word, please.’ Start from the beginning and say ‘Word, please’ when you come to any word you don’t know.” Many students start by saying “Word, please,” but still look up as they say it. Teachers need to remind students to keep their eyes on the word, even after they ask for help, and then follow up by having the student repeat “Word, please” with eyes on the word.
After a student asks for help with a speciﬁc word, the teacher can elect to (1) have the student sound out the word if the spelling patterns are ones the student should know or (2) provide the word if the student is not expected to know how to read it.
3. Students Who Look Up to Think About the Word
Students who look up to think about the word are perhaps the most diﬃcult to train to keep their eyes on the page. These students generally have very poor decoding skills and strong language skills. Their experience has taught them that glancing at the word and thinking about possible words is easier and sometimes more successful for them than taking the time to decode the word.
Students who look up to think about the word are diﬀerent from those who look up because they want teacher approval or want to be told the word. They think that they can “ﬁnd the word in their heads.” Therefore, teachers need to ask these students to continue to look at the word as they try to read it. If they can’t read the word, they need to say “Word, please.”
Kindergarten and ﬁrst grade teachers can keep the “looking up” habit from developing. First, they can teach that accuracy is critical when reading. All teachers can help students achieve accuracy by insisting that they look at words the entire time they read. When any student misreads a word, the teacher can stop the student at the end of the sentence or word list, and follow these steps:
- Tell the student the number of words read correctly (or say, “You read perfectly up to this word” as you point at the missed word).
- Ask the student to sound out the word if it is decodable or give the word if the student hasn’t learned its spelling patterns.
- Have the student read the sentence again (up to three times) until he or she reads the sentence accurately without looking up.
Teachers can also stop teaching strategies that encourage students to take their eyes oﬀ the word. These ineﬀective strategies include: “guess based on context,” “look at the ﬁrst letter and think of a word that ﬁts,” and “look at the picture.” We wish all educators understood that these strategies encourage the student to look away from the words as they consider how to guess what the word might be. No good reader looks away from the words when reading.
Linda Farrell is a founding partner at Readsters, an Alexandria, VA-based firm that helps schools implement research-based reading instruction. She is committed to helping struggling readers become strong readers and to helping strong readers achieve their full potential. Linda is a former English teacher who has coauthored several publications and videos on effective reading assessment and instruction, including Teaching Reading Essentials, DIBELS: A Practical Manual, and Colleague in the Classroom. She can be reached at email@example.com.